Point-of-sale loyalty analysis considering store environment (online and offline) and recency of purchase


Loyalty at the point of sale
Online channel
Offline channel
Purchase behavior
Recency of purchase

How to Cite

Hermenegildo Chávez, M. V., Rondán Cataluña, F. J., & Martin Ruiz, D. (2023). Point-of-sale loyalty analysis considering store environment (online and offline) and recency of purchase. Review of Business Management, 25(4). https://doi.org/10.7819/rbgn.v25i4.4246


Purpose – First, to test our comparative model between online and offline purchase behavior; and, secondly, to investigate whether recency moderates the model's relationships in different periods.

Theoretical framework – This study is framed by Garbarino and Johnson's (1999) theory of the roles of satisfaction, trust and commitment.

Design/methodology/approach – The sample consists of 768 purchases of products/services from Peruvian consumers. To test the hypotheses we apply the structural equation modelling based on covariance (SEM).

Findings – The relationship between privacy/security of purchase and quality is more intense in an offline purchase than online, while the opposite is true for the relationship between quality and trust. Also, purchase recency moderates all relationships in our loyalty model.

Research Practical & Social implications – We focus this study on a Latin American country where recency of purchase takes centre stage in customer loyalty relationships.

Originality/value – We provide a relevant perspective on point-of-sale loyalty in both offline and online environments, looking at the moderating role of recency of purchase (a variable that has been little researched), in the context of a developing country such as Peru.



Aldás Manzano, J., Currás Pérez, R., Ruiz Mafé, C., & Sanz Blas, S. (2010). Key drivers of loyalty in B2C e-commerce: an aplication to airline tickets purchasing. Revista Española de Investigación de Marketing ESIC, 14(2), 113-142.

Alet Vilaginés, J. (2020). Predicting customer behavior with activation loyalty per period. From RFM to RFMAP.

ESIC Market, 51(3), 639-667.

Angamarca Izquierdo, G., Díaz González, Y., & Martínez Martínez, C. (2019). Perceived quality service hotel consumer. A bibliographical review. Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Económicas, 3(2), 100-133.

Arce-Urriza, M., & Cebollada, J. (2010). A theoretical evaluation of the internet’s potential as a shopping channel. ESIC Market, 135, 181-214.

Aslam, W., Hussain, A., Farhat, K., & Arif, I. (2020). Underlying factors influencing consumers’ trust and loyalty in e-commerce. Business Perspectives and Research, 8(2), 186-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2278533719887451.

Becerra, M. J. E. (2020, January 14). Peru: The most demanded products by Peruvians in 2019. América Retail. https://www.america-retail.com/peru/peru-los-productosmas-demandados-por-los-peruanos-en-el-2019/. In Spanish.

Bustamante, J. C. (2015). Use of mediating and moderating variables in explaining consumer loyalty in service environments. Estudios Gerenciales, 31, 299-309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.estger.2015.05.002.

Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least square approach to structural equation modeling. In G. A. Marcoulides (Ed.), Modern Methods for business research (pp. 295-336). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publisher.

ComexPerú (2022, March 11). Peru’s airport passenger traffic in 2021 was 54.5% more than in 2020. https:// www.comexperu.org.pe/articulo/el-trafico-de-pasajerosen-aeropuertos-del-peru-en-2021-fue-un-545-mas-queen-2020. In Spanish.

Correia Loureiro, S. M., & Miranda González, F. J. (2010). Quality and satisfaction in hospitable urgencies service: Analysis of a Portugal Center Zone hospital. Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa, 16(2), .27-41 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1135-2523(12)60110-5.

Cristóbal Fransi, E., & Marimon Viadiu, F. (2011). Virtual supermarket’s management: Analysis of the online customer behaviour. Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa, 17(1), 93-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1135-2523(12)60046-X.

Farías, P. (2019). Determinants of knowledge of personal loans’ total costs: How price consciousness, financial literacy, purchase recency and frequency work together. Journal of Business Research, 102, 212-219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.01.047.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002224378101800104.

Garbarino, E., & Johnson, M. S. (1999). The different roles of satisfaction, trust, and commitment in customer relationships. Journal of Marketing, 63(2), 70-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002224299906300205.

García-Avilés, J. A., Navarro-Maillo, F., & Arias-Robles, F. (2014). The credibility of information content on the internet for ‘digital natives’: A case study. Palabra Clave, 17(3), 875-894. http://dx.doi.org/10.5294/pacla.2014.17.3.13.

Giao, H. N. K., & Vuong, B. N. (2021). The impact of service quality on passenger loyalty and the mediating roles of relationship quality: A study of domestic flights with Vietamese Low-Cost airlines. Transportation Research Procedia, 56, 88-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2021.09.011.

Handojo, A., Pujawan, N., Santosa, B., & Singgih, M. L. (2023). A multi layer recency frequency monetary method for customer priority segmentation in online transaction. Cogent Engineering, 10(1), 2162679. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311916.2022.2162679.

Hernández Soriano, F. S., & Cristóbal Fransi, E. (2016). Interaction as determining factor in the online media quality. Opción: Revista de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, 32(7), 848-864.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118.

Jebarajakirthy, C., Das, M., Shah, D., & Shankar, A. (2021). Deciphering in-store-online switching in multi-channel retailing context: Role of affective commitment to purchase situation. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 63, 102742. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2021.102742.

Ladwein, R., & Sánchez Romero, A. M. (2021). The role of trust in the relationship between consumers, producers and retailers of organic food: A sector-based approach. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 60, 102508. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2021.102508.

Liu, C., Marchewka, J. T., Lu, J., & Yu, C. (2005). Beyond concern - a privacy-trust-behavioral intention model of electronic commerce. Information & Management, 42(2), 289-304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2004.01.003.

Martín Castejón, P. J., Román Nicolás, S., & Fernández Sabiote, E. (2011). Influence of individual behavior on seller’s relational satisfaction, trust and loyalty of the buyer in the context of industrial SMEs. Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa, 17(3), 91-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1135-2523(12)60122-1.

Medina Quintero, J. M., Ríos Echeverría, O., & Ortiz Rodríguez, F. (2022). Trust and information quality for the customer satisfaction and loyalty in e-Banking with the use of the mobile phone. Contaduría y Administración, 67(1), 283-304.

Miao, M., Jalees, T., Zaman, S. I., Khan, S., Hanif, N. U. A., & Javed, M. K. (2022). The influence of e-customer satisfaction, e-trust and perceived value on consumer’s repurchase intention in B2C e-commerce segment. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 34(10), 2184-2206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/APJML-03-2021-0221.

Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 20-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002224299405800302.

Neslin, S. A., Taylor, G. A., Grantham, K. D., & McNeil, K. R. (2013). Overcoming the “recency trap” in customer relationship management. Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, 41(3), 320-337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11747-012-0312-7.

NielsenIQ. (2022, March 17). A new economic divide will fragment the 2022 retail landscape. https://nielseniq. com/global/es/insights/analysis/2022/una-nueva-brechaeconomica-fragmentara-el-panorama-minorista-de-2022/. In Spanish.

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Oliver, R. L. (1999). Whence consumer loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 63(4 Suppl 1), 33-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00222429990634s105.

Palomino Pita, A. F., Mendoza Vargas, C., & Oblitas Cruz, J. F. (2020). E-commerce and its importance in times of COVID-19 in northern Peru. Revista Venezolana de Gerencia, 25(3), 253-266.

Parikh, P., Aparo, N. O., Nordhagen, S., & De Steur, H. (2022). Food safety-related perspectives and practices of consumers and vendors in Ethiopia: A scoping review. Food Research International, 157, 111376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2022.111376. PMid:35761632.

Peasley, M. C., Woodroof, P. J., & Coleman, J. T. (2021). Processing contradictory CSR information: The influence of primacy and recency effects on the consumer-firm relationship. Journal of Business Ethics, 172(2), 275-289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10551-020-04514-4.

Ruíz Ríos, K. R., & Tello Reátegui, B. C. (2016). Tourism safety and the quality of tourism services in the district of Sauce, province and region San Martin, year 2018 [Undergraduate thesis]. Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Tarapoto, Perú. In Spanish.

San Martín, S., & Camarero, C. (2010). Determinants of online buyer trust. A comparison with the auction

system. Cuadernos de Gestión, 10, 43-61. https://doi.org/10.5295/cdg.100187ss.

Shafiee, M. M., & Bazargan, N. A. (2018). Behavioral customer loyalty in online shopping: The role of e-service quality and e-recovery. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 13(1), 26-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-

Shankar, V., Smith, A. K., & Rangaswamy, A. (2003). Customer satisfaction and loyalty in online and offline environments. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 20(2), 153-175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8116(03)00016-8.

Sharma, G. (2017). Service quality, satisfaction and loyalty on online marketing: An empirical investigation. Global Journal of Management and Business Research: E-Marketing, 17(2), 56-66.

Shum, C., & Ghosh, A. (2022). Safety or service? Effects of employee prosocial safety-rule-breaking on consumer satisfaction. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 103, 103225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2022.103225. PMid:35946038.

Torrado, U. (2019). E-commerce 2019. DATUM Internacional. https://www.datum.com.pe/new_web_files/files/pdf/2019%20Ecommerce%202019.pdf.

Van Birgelen, M., De Ruyter, K., De Jong, J., & Wetzels, M. (2002). Customer evaluations of after-sales service contact modes: An empirical analysis of national culture’s consequences. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 19(1), 43-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8116(02)00047-2.

Vargas Rocha, F. R., De Esteban Curiel, J., & Moura Cunha, L. R. (2020). The relationship between trust, commitment and its effects on brand loyalty. Revista de Métodos Cuantitativos para la Economía y la Empresa, 29, 131-151.

Wu, J., Li, K. J., & Liu, J. S. (2018). Bayesian inference for assessing effects of email marketing campaigns. Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, 36(2), 253-266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07350015.2016.1141096.

Yuwen, H., Guanxing, S., & Qiongwei, Y. (2022). Consumers’ perceived trust evaluation of cross-border e-commerce platforms in the context of socialization. Procedia Computer Science, 199, 548-555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2022.01.067.

If a paper is approved for publication, its copyright has to be transferred by the author(s) to the Review of Business Management – RBGN.

Accordingly, authors are REQUIRED to send RBGN a duly completed and signed Copyright Transfer Form. Please refer to the following template: [Copyright Transfer]

The conditions set out by the Copyright Transfer Form state that the Review of Business Management – RBGN owns, free of charge and permanently, the copyright of the papers it publishes. Although the authors are required to sign the Copyright Transfer Form, RBGN allows authors to hold and use their own copyright without restrictions.

The texts published by RBGN are the sole responsibility of their authors.

The review has adopted the CC-BY Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 allowing redistribution and reuse of papers on condition that the authorship is properly credited.